Deck 6 – Modern shipping: Merchant and passenger shipping
Guide to deck 6: Modern shipping
60 – Introduction: Deck 6, Modern shipping
Exhibition deck 6 is dedicated to the development of merchant and passenger shipping since the middle of the 19th century.
Sailing ships, built of wood, were able to maintain their position as the most important means of sea transport until the 1880s. However, when reliable steam engines and iron and steel became available as shipbuilding materials, steamships dominated the market on most shipping routes: Sailors could not compete with the lower freight rates due to on-time transport and a multiple of transport capacity.
In the 1960s, the standardised 20-foot container revolutionised maritime freight transport once again. The six-metre long, two-and-a-half-metre wide and high box has completely changed maritime trade in recent decades through standardisation.
A central area of the exhibition is also devoted to passenger shipping. It was mainly emigrants to the USA and business travellers who used the ship as a means of transport in the 19th and 20th centuries. Until the introduction of scheduled services with fast passenger jets, sea travel was the only connection between the continents. Today, travelling by sea is experiencing a renaissance. Caribbean, sun deck, deck chair and cocktail – the number of cruise passengers is steadily increasing.
61 – The Merchant Navy
The Industrial Revolution also changed merchant shipping. From the second half of the 19th century, the era of the wooden sailing ship came to an end – steamships made of iron and steel now dominated the transport of goods at sea.
Steamships operated according to a timetable because they were independent of the wind. They could also transport significantly more goods. The higher cargo volume increased the profit margins of the ship owners. The introduction of the marine diesel engine at the beginning of the 20th century, in turn, made maritime transport even more economical: diesel engines require few personnel for servicing and maintenance and save the costly coal.
The construction and operation of steam and motor ships was and is capital-intensive. The traditional sailing ship owner, usually a one-man operation, was usually unable to raise the funds to buy steamers. Small-scale shipowners were increasingly replaced by joint-stock companies. From then on, the shareholders financed a ship jointly. The high entrepreneurial risk of maritime shipping was mitigated by newly founded insurance and classification societies such as Lloyd’s of London or Germanischer Lloyd.
In merchant shipping, the ship operator has to pay dues. Canal, port or pilotage dues must be paid. The amount of the tariffs was always based on the volume of the actual cargo space – the net tonnage: crew and engine rooms were not taken into account.
To save fees, shipowners used crates as additional stowage space for deck cargo. These „open spaces“ through hatches were considered as non-measured cargo space and were exempt from the payment of dues.
Since 1969, the volume of a ship’s hull has been calculated without exception according to the new gross tonnage system. In this way, trickery is prevented and a clear measure of size is obtained when measuring the ship.
General Cargo Ship Japanese Prince
General Cargo Ship Japanese Prince. Her magnificent yard model in a scale of 1:100 is one of the jewels that stand in our exhibition on the history of modern maritime logistics on deck 6 of the museum. The general cargo … Weiterlesen →
General cargo ship Konsul Schulte
General cargo ship Konsul Schulte. Her yard model in a scale of 1:100 stands in our exhibition about the history of modern maritime logistics, on deck 6 of the museum. The general cargo ship „Konsul Schulte“ may appear like yet … Weiterlesen →
General cargo ship MS Tabora
The general cargo ship MS Tabora (1965-1987). Her original shipyard model was built in the workshop of Ihlenfeld & Berkefeld on a scale of 1:100 and is part of our exhibition on the history of modern maritime logistics. It is … Weiterlesen →
62 – The Container, Part 1
Boxes, sacks and pallets – until the introduction of the container, chartering, loading and transport were labour-intensive and time-consuming.
General cargo is goods with different dimensions and weights. Due to the uneven dimensions, loading a general cargo ship is complicated. Special stowage plans are drawn up to make the best possible use of the cargo space. For loading and unloading, general cargo ships have onboard winches, derricks and cranes.
Since the 1960s, container ships have replaced the traditional general cargo ship. Today, the standardised, stackable cargo box accounts for over 90 percent of all general cargo transport. Container transport required high initial investments. New cargo ships and changed port logistics became necessary. At the same time, the container rationalised the transport of goods. Shorter lay times in the port and a significant increase in transport volume resulted in cost savings.
At the beginning of the new transport era, converted general cargo freighters were used to transport stackable boxes. However, as early as the end of the 1960s, the construction of ships specialised in container transport began.
The profitability of a ship depends on the cargo volume. The more boxes a ship carries, the cheaper the transport becomes. Accordingly, the trend over time has been towards ever larger container ships.
You can find out more about the development of container transport in the next exhibition room. The way there leads you through an original 20-foot container – a TEU.
Container ship Bell Vanguard
The container ship Bell Vanguard (1966-1988). Her 1:100 scale model, built in the workshop of R. Ottmar Modellbau in Flensburg, is part of our exhibition on containerization on deck 6 of the museum. „German shipowners have not yet ordered any … Weiterlesen →
Semi-container ship Holstenracer
Semi-container ship Holstenracer. Her original yard model was built in a scale of 1:100 by the Ihlenfeldt & Berkebeld workshop and is part of our exhibition on modern maritime logistics on deck 6 of the museum. The MS Holstenracer was … Weiterlesen →
Not on display:
General cargo ship Athen
The general cargo ship Athen (1936-1945). The original yard model of the „Athen“ on a scale of 1:50 is in the museum’s depot. The „Athen“ was a general cargo ship built in 1936. Until the outbreak of the Second World … Weiterlesen →
63 – The Container, Part 2
The container is the foundation of today’s maritime goods trade. Currently, over 8,000 container ships transport more than 20 million steel boxes across the world’s oceans every year.
The loading capacity of a ship is expressed in TEU. This abbreviation stands for „Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit“. It denotes the dimensions of a standard container measured in feet.
The container trade began in the USA in 1956. The standardised steel box shortened the handling of goods and simplified the transport of goods considerably. A container protects the cargo from damage, is stable and has a low tare weight.
One of the first container ships – the „Bell Vanguard“ of 1966 – carried just 75 units of the new type of transport box. However, the cargo volume of cargo ships increased rapidly. In 1996, the Danish container ship „Regina Maersk“ was launched. With a capacity of 6,500 TEU, it was the largest container ship in the world at the time. Over 300 metres long and 42 metres wide, the „Regina Maersk“ stowed 19 rows of containers side by side.
The latest generation of container ships has a transport capacity of about 14,000 standard boxes. In comparison, it would take 7,500 trucks or 1,000 Airbus A380 aircraft to transport the amount of goods contained in these boxes.
However, as the volume of cargo increases, problems also arise. Some port facilities are now too small for the huge container ships. Also, due to the large draught of the ships, the fairways of rivers and in ports sometimes have to be deepened.
Container ships are usually financed by fund companies. In this way, risks and dividends are widely spread.
On the tween deck we have selected models of the most important types of merchant ships on display for you. In addition to traditional general cargo ships and modern container giants, you will also discover bulk carriers for the transport of bulk goods, tankers for the transport of liquid substances and refrigerated ships for the transport of perishable goods.
Container ship Madison Maersk
The container ship Madison Maersk (2017). This 1:200 scale shipyard model of the “Madison Mærsk” is a donation from the Maersk Group and is displayed in our Modern Maritime Logistics exhibition on deck 6 of the museum. Die „Madison Mærsk“ … Weiterlesen →
– Safety at Sea:
It was not until the age of humanism that the rescue of shipwrecked people was understood as a task and a demand. Many of today’s worldwide sea rescue societies owe their foundation to charitable associations or the initiative of doctors, members of church organisations or people closely associated with seafaring.
Newspaper reports about serious shipwrecks with numerous fatalities due to failure to provide help were usually the immediate reason why people regarded rescue from distress at sea as a vocation or provided donations. Most of these rescue initiatives, which were often of local significance in the beginning, were consolidated under state supervision.
At the end of the 18th to the middle of the 19th century, three of the most important national organisations for sea rescue emerged in the United States („Massachusetts Humane Society“, 1787, today „U.S. Coast Guard“), Great Britain („Royal National Lifeboat Institution“, RNLI 1824) and Germany („Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Rettung Schiffbrüchiger“, DGzRS 1865). They are responsible for the respective coastal waters in case of emergencies.
They jointly coordinate the rescue and recovery of shipwrecked persons on the high seas. Today, they have an important intergovernmental forum in the IMO (International Maritime Organization), which was founded in 1948.
Warship HMS Birkenhead
Warship HMS Birkenhead. 1852: The Birkenhead Drill: “Women and children first!“ 1852: The Birkenhead Drill: “Women and children first!“ At the time of her launch in 1845, HMS „Birkenhead“ was the largest iron-hull warship in the British Royal Navy. She … Weiterlesen →
RMS Titanic. Our model of the ocean liner in a scale of 1:150 is installed in our section about „Safety at Sea on deck 6 of the museum. RMS „Titanic“, arguably the most famous ship of all time, sank in … Weiterlesen →
– Reefer shipping:
Reefer Shipping. The development of this new exhibition area in the Museum was made possible by the sponsorship of Dr. August Oetker KG, Bielefeld. The Hamburg Süd company was owned by the Oetker family for more than eight decades until … Weiterlesen →
Reefer Polar Ecuador
Reefer Polar Ecuador. The original yard model of the Polar Ecuador, built at the Christel Stührmann Workshop in a scale of 1:100, is part of the historical Estate of the Company Hamburg Süd, and now displayed in our reefer section … Weiterlesen →
– Models tweendeck West:
General cargo ships:
General cargo ship Nicea
General cargo ship Nicea. Her 1:100 scale model by H. Reiche is part of our exhibition on the history of modern maritime logistics on deck 6 of the museum. The „Nicea“ was a general cargo freighter delivered by the Lübecker … Weiterlesen →
„Postdam Ship“ Harald Schröder
„Postdam Ship“ Harald Schröder. This interesting model in a scale of 1:100 is displayed in our section on the History of modern maritime logistics, on deck 6 of the museum. „Harald Schröder“ was among the first seagoing vessels built in … Weiterlesen →
General cargo ship Siena
General cargo ship Siena. Her magnificent original 1:100 scale shipyard model lives on on deck 6 of our permanent exhibition on modern merchant shipping history. Det Østasiatiske Kompagni is a Danish shipping company founded in 1897 with the original aim … Weiterlesen →
General cargo ship Dagan
General cargo ship Dagan. Her original yard model, showing her as she looked in 1954 in a scale of 1:100, is part of our exhibition on modern maritime logistics on deck 6 of the museum. Beitrag The general cargo ship … Weiterlesen →
Coastal freighter Pötenitz
The coastal freighter Pötenitz (1966-2011). Her original shipyard model built by the Unterweser-Modellbau workshop is one of the examples for the development of coastal shipping in our exhibition on modern maritime logistics on deck 6 of the museum. The “Pötenitz” … Weiterlesen →
General cargo ship Cap San Diego
The general cargo ship Cap San Diego (1961). Her magnificent yard model on a scale of 1:100 is part of our special exhibition „Hamburg Süd – 150 years on the world´s oceans“, which can be seen on deck 1 of … Weiterlesen →
General cargo ship Wittenberg
General cargo ship Wittenberg. This magnificent model of her was built in a scale of 1:100 by Gottfried Heinrich. It stands in our exhibition on modern maritime logistics, on deck 6 of the museum. The Uniafrica Line was a shipping … Weiterlesen →
General cargo ship Etha Rickmers
General cargo ship Etha Rickmers. Her yard model was masterfully built by the Christel Stührmann workshop in a scale of 1:100. It entered the Peter Tamm collection in the mid 1980s and has been part of our exhibition on the … Weiterlesen →
General cargo ship Paul Rickmers
General cargo ship Paul Rickmers. This amazing yard model of the ship from 1955 was built by the workshop of Christel Stührmann in a scale of 1:100 and is displayed on deck 6 of the museum. Paul Henry Rickmers (1873-1946) … Weiterlesen →
General cargo vessel Hans Bornhofen
The general cargo vessel Hans Bornhofen (1971-1995). Her original shipyard model, showing her condition in 1971, is a masterpiece built by the Christel Stührmann workshop on a scale of 1:100. It is part of our exhibition on the history of … Weiterlesen →
General cargo ship Jörg Krüger
General cargo ship Jörg Krüger. The shipyard model was built by the Unterweser Modellbau workshop on a scale of 1:100 and can be seen in our exhibition on modern maritime logistics on deck 6 of the museum. The „Jörg Krüger“ … Weiterlesen →
Ro-Ro Ship Kaptan Necdet Or
Ro-Ro Ship Kaptan Necdet Or. Her magnificent yard model built in a scale of 1:100 by G. Marlorny is part of our permanent display on modern maritime logistics, on deck 5 of the museum. The Kaptan Necdet Or was a … Weiterlesen →
Con-Ro Ship Atlantic Concert
The Con-Ro ship Atlantic Concert (1984-2016). This schematic diorama demonstrates the way such a ship is loaded/unloaded at port and gives an idea of her structure in a scale of 1:150. The diorama is a permanent loan made by ACL … Weiterlesen →
Bulk cargo carriers:
Bulk Carrier Malmland
The bulk carrier Malmland (1974-1997). The 1:100 scale yard model of the Malmland is part of our exhibition on the history of modern maritime logistics on deck 6 of the museum. The bulk carrier Malmland was built in 1974 at … Weiterlesen →
Bulk carrier Holmsund
Bulk carrier Holmsund. Her original 1:100 scale shipyard model was built by the AB Sverre workshop in Gothenburg and donated to our collection as part of Dr. Engel’s estate. It is part of our exhibition on modern maritime logistics on … Weiterlesen →
Heavy duty and specialized ships:
Heavy-lift vessel Kandelfels
The Heavy-lift vessel Kandelfels (1954-1986). Her original yard model was built by the Hamburg modelling workshop of Christel Stührmannin a scale of 1:100. It is displayed in our exhibition on the history of modern maritime logistics, on deck 6 of … Weiterlesen →
Coastal freighter Inga
Coastal freighter Inga. The yard model of the Inga stand as a example for specialised coastal freighters on deck 6 of the museum. Shipbuilding has been taking place on a grand scale in the North Frisian town of Husum since … Weiterlesen →
Models in other decks:
Bulk carrier Edmund Fitzgerald
Bulk carrier Edmund Fitzgerald. Her miniature in a scale of 1:1250 is in our general display on deck 9 of the museum. On the early evening of November the 10th 1975, the ore bulk carrier SS Edmund Fitzgerald sunk in … Weiterlesen →
General cargo ship Maas
The general cargo ship Maas (1958-1992). The 1:100 scale model was produced by the Christel Stührmann workshop in Hamburg. This shipyard model of the general cargo ship „Maas“ is part of a generous permanent loan that Mareike Janssen made to … Weiterlesen →
Heavy-duty general cargo ship Saar
Heavy-duty general cargo ship Saar. This magnificent yard model is part of a larger permanent loan of objects from the Hamburg shipping company Friedrich A. Detjen. This magnificent yard model is part of a larger permanent loan of objects from … Weiterlesen →
Destroyer USS Glennon
Destroyer USS Glennon. Her 1:100 scale model is part of our Modern Naval Warfare exhibition on deck 5 of the museum. The American Gearing-class destroyers were an upgrade of the Allen M. Summer-class. Two of their most important features were … Weiterlesen →
Currently not on display:
Car carrier Asian Trust
Car carrier Asian Trust. The yard model and diorama of the vehicle carrier “Asian Trust” was built in a scale of 1:200. The “Asian Trust” belongs to a highly specialized type of a “Roll-on/Roll-off” (Ro-Ro) vessel. Ships like this one … Weiterlesen →
Collier SS Upminster
Collier SS Upminster. This shipyard model of a single-hull steam freighter was acquired in Great Britain in the mid-1970s for the Peter Tamm collection and was almost certainly built in 1916 or 1917. It is a 1:100 scale representation of … Weiterlesen →
– Tanker / Liquid Bulk shipping
Oil tanker ESSO Bremen
Oil tanker ESSO Bremen. The builder’s model of the „ESSO Bremen“ was built in the workshop of Chr. Stührmann in Hamburg. Due to its scale of 1:100, the model is over 2.50 m long. It is located on deck 6 … Weiterlesen →
Chemicals Tanker Boraq
Chemicals Tanker Boraq. Her original yard model in a scale of 1:100 was a generous present from Hyundai to the museum 10 years ago. It has since been on permanent display. The Boraq serves on deck 5 of our exhibition … Weiterlesen →
Tankers on other decks:
LPG Tanker Tycho Brae
LPG Tanker Tycho Brae. Her original yard model in a scale of 1:100 is displayed on deck 9 of the museum. The „Tycho Brahe“ was an LPG tanker built in 1982 by Meyer shipyard, Papenburg. LPG is the abbreviation for … Weiterlesen →
Tanker Olympic Storm
Tanker Olympic Storm. The magnificent shipyard model shown here was built by the Unterweser Modellbau workshop on a scale of 1:100. It is on display in our exhibition on deck 9 of the museum. The „Olympic Storm“ was one of … Weiterlesen →
Oil tanker SS Manhattan
The Oil tanker SS Manhattan (1962). This miniature model in a scale of 1:1250 was built by the CSC workshop and is on display on deck 9 of the museum. The SS „Manhattan“ was a ship that made history. When … Weiterlesen →
Oil Tanker British Strength
Oil Tanker British Strength. This 1:1250 scale miniature of the „British Strength“ is a masterpiece of the CSC workshop and is on display with other models of them on deck 9 of the museum. Between 1982 and 1983, The Swan … Weiterlesen →
LNG Gigira Laitebo
The LNG Gigira Laitebo (2010). This 1:1250 scale miniature of the „Gigira Laitebo“ is a work of the CSC workshop and is displayed on deck 9 of the museum. This LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) carrier was completed in 2010 after … Weiterlesen →
FSRU GNL del Plata
FSRU GNL del Plata. This 1:1250 scale miniature was masterfully crafted by the CSC workshop during the ship’s construction and bears the planned name „GNL Del Plata“. It stands on deck 9 of the museum. The ship that we know … Weiterlesen →
LNG Tanker Shahamah
LNG Tanker Shahamah. This 1:1250 scale miniature built by the CSC Workshop is part of our general display on deck 9 of the museum. Not only the gigantic „LNG“ writing on her sides, but also her characteristic structure let us … Weiterlesen →
LPG tanker Gaz Nordsee
LPG tanker Gaz Nordsee. Her magnificent 1:100 scale yard model is the work of Christel Stührmann. This one belongs to a collection of ship models from the Detjen shipping company that was generously given as a permanent loan to the … Weiterlesen →
Oil tanker HS Tosca
The crude oil tanker HS Tosca (2004). This impressive 1:100 scale model, built by Samsung, was owned by Hansa Shipping. The company donated it to the museum, and it stands as an example of an Aframax tanker in our exhibition … Weiterlesen →
Currently not on display:
Chemicals tanker Hellespont Centurion
Chemicals tanker Hellespont Centurion. The 1:100 scale yard model of the chemicals and products tanker “Hellespont Centurion” is a donation made by the Hamburg seat of the shipping company Hellespont to our museum. The 1:100 scale yard model of the … Weiterlesen →
General Cargo Ship Henriette Wilhelmine Schulte
General Cargo Ship Henriette Wilhelmine Schulte. Her original 1:100 yard model, built by the Workshop of Christel Stührmann, is currently in the depot of the museum. Why so? Because the yard model of her sister, Ilse Schulte is on display … Weiterlesen →
64 – Passengers Shipping
From the middle of the 19th century, steamships and then motor ships replaced sailing. The triumphant advance of technology permanently changed passenger traffic at sea. Soon ships were sailing on fixed routes and according to binding timetables.
In the early days of regular steamship connections, passengers mainly used mail ships to go overseas. Soon, however, large fast steamers were operating weekly on the transatlantic route between Europe and North America. There was a special reason for this: while at first it was mainly business travellers who used the liner service, in the course of the 19th century millions of emigrants sought their way seawards to the New World.
Travelling on sailing ships was arduous. Cramped quarters, long journeys and a lack of hygiene facilities made travelling a torture. With the advent of steamships, sea travel became more pleasant. International shipping companies competed for the favour of passengers. Competition between shipping companies led to ever faster ships that offered first-class luxury to travellers and bearable crossings to emigrants.
In the 1960s, air travel took over passenger transport. The emergence of mass tourism, however, brought about a rebirth of sea travel. From then on, passenger ships were increasingly used for pleasure trips. Instead of getting from A to B as quickly as possible, the journey is now the destination.
Our exhibition documents the history of passenger shipping with ship models, paintings, table decorations and two passenger cabins. Megayachts represent a special kind of luxurious travel. A special section on deck 6 is dedicated to them.
Ocean Liner President Lincoln
Ocean Liner President Lincoln. This model named „President“ most likely represents the „President Lincoln“ in 1:200 scale. It is on display in our exhibition on the history of modern passenger shipping on deck 6 of the museum. We have often … Weiterlesen →
Ocean liner Bremen (Pasteur)
The ocean liner Bremen (Pasteur, 1939-1980). This model, showing the look of the “Bremen” in 1959, was built in a 1:200 scale by A. Phillip. It is displayed on Deck 6 of the museum. Troop carrier, ocean liner, cruise liner … Weiterlesen →
models in other decks:
Ocean liner Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse
Ocean liner Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse. This extremely detailed miniature in a scale of 1:1250 was built by the CSC workshop and is on display on deck 9. As frist superliner in history, the ocean liner Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse … Weiterlesen →
Ocean liner SS Reliance
The ocean liner SS Reliance (1915-1940). This 1:1250 scale miniature is part of our exhibition on the history of shipbuilding on deck 3 of the museum. We regularly write about how war has affected civilian shipping, as it remains a … Weiterlesen →
Ocean liner SS Oriana
The ocean liner SS Oriana (1960-2004). This detailed miniature, built by the CSC workshop to a scale of 1:1250, is part of our exhibition on deck 9 of the museum. The SS „Oriana“ has earned a place in the hall … Weiterlesen →
Cruise ship Queen Victoria
The cruise Ship Queen Victoria (2007). This amazingly detailed 1:1250 scale miniature was built by the CSC workshop and can be seen on deck 9 of the museum. The MS „Queen Victoria“ was the first „Queen“ of the Cunard Line … Weiterlesen →
Models in other decks:
Ferry Königin Louise
Ferry Königin Louise. This model by the company Wiking in a scale of 1:100 is quite a rarity. The second touristic ferry of the company HAPAG named Königin Louise was built in 1934 at the Howaldtswerke shipyard in Hamburg and … Weiterlesen →
Ferry Bunte Kuh
The ferry Bunte Kuh (1957-). The yard model of the “Bunte Kuh” is part of the display dedicated to the personality our founder Prof. Peter Tamm in the Entrance Hall of the museum. This beautiful model of a ferry has … Weiterlesen →
Steam ferry Sabino
The steam ferry Sabino (1908). This incredibly detailed 1:75 scale model is part of our permanent exhibition on inland navigation and ferries on deck 9 of the museum. It was built by the model maker Anton Happach. This little marvel, … Weiterlesen →